Can Cannabis Help My Chronic Pain???

How Cannabis is Effective for Different Types of Pain Relief

By: Lindsay Howard

For many years, Cannabis has been recognized for its amazing ability to relieve pain. More importantly, cannabis has also been successful in relieving pain from different origins. As in, pain from the Central Nervous System, inflammation from injury and even neuropathic pain caused by dysfunction in the immune system. With proper application and dosing, Natural Healing Care Center (NHCC), has been delighted to learn how cannabis can be effective for pain relief. Arizona Department of Health Services (AZDHS) reported, as of 2018, out of the total 162,528 medical marijuana card holders in Arizona, 86.18% received their cards for ‘Severe and Chronic Pain’.

Types of Pain

Pain can be placed in three general categories; Nociceptive pain: pain, usually from injury, resulting in inflammation and a sharp or aching sensation. Neuropathic Pain: Stemming from damage to the nervous system and destruction of nerve cells, usually feeling pinching or stabbing in a area of the body (i.e M.S, Diabetes, HIV, Pain from Chemo). Central Pain ‘other’: Pain arising from neurological dysfunction. This type of pain can be a result from injury or surgery, it can also be considered the, ‘catch-all’, for pain symptoms.

Identifying the origin of pain, along with the type, is the most important piece for finding the correct dose and method of cannabis consumption.

“Pain is a synergistic reaction in the body, occurring mostly between brain regions, by way of activated brain cells. These cells directly modulate the pain signals sent through the body, in some cases this is from physical injury resulting in, nociceptive pain. When an injury occurs there is damage to the surrounding tissue and inflammatory cells race to repair any damage.” Ingram 2017. Cannabis is responsible for reducing the signal of pain at the injury site and dampening the effects of those signals as they travel up the spinal cord. A properly dosed regimen of CBD and THC has been successful in relieving pain signals from being so strong (CBD), while lessening the signals affect on the brain (THC).

Neuropathic pain is a slightly more broad type of pain caused by damage to the nervous system. This damage can be a result of disease, like diabetic neuropathy, or injury where the nerves become damaged causing a wide spread of multi-symptom pain. This can range from, Phantom Limb Pain, to something as simple as the tingling sensation when you hit your ‘funny bone’. Unfortunately, neuropathic pain most likely leads to chronic pain, as the nerves don’t heal very fast, making it hard to treat.  (Ingram 2017)

How it Works

Cannabis has been shown to be affective on the, ‘often hard to treat’, neuropathic pain in two very distinct ways: Activating the CB1 receptors that exist in the brain’s, endocannabinoid system, to reduce pain. While also increasing the amount of serotonin produced by the brain, dulling the brain’s amount of pain signals traveling up the Central Nervous System.

 Other Types of Pain

Centralized or Algopathic can be described as, chronic pain developed from extensive acute pain, as in: a result from surgery or an often unknown cause which there are dysfunction in the workings of the nervous system, but no known actual damage. We find this type of pain in patients with Fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome. It is the unknown dynamic of centralized pain, which makes treatment difficult.

Despite the lack of knowledge of where central pain originates, cannabis has been proven to be effective for this type of pain by activating certain receptors in the Endocannabinoid system. This has helped relieve and prevent flare up symptoms from Fibromyalgia and other issues stemming from the central nervous system. Cannabis combats the pain by targeting the brains conception of pain signals and by regulating the actual pain receptors themselves, dampening their signal.

Although there has been very limited research on cannabis, and it’s effect on pain, nearly all studies done on mice have resulted in the astounding beneficial research and lean in the favor of Cannabis as an alternative form of medication. We, at NHCC, have personally experienced the benefits cannabis for treatment, and have been able to learn the importance of proper dosing, along with method of consumption. As research continues, we look forward to learning more about the medicinal properties and benefits of Cannabis.

For more information on How to Use Cannabis as Medicine, or to Obtain your Arizona Medical Marijuana Card in Tucson AZ, Please Contact Natural Healing Care Center at 520-323-0069 or Visit our Website WWW.NATURALHEALINGCARECENTER.COM We are located in the Heart of Tucson AZ and We are here to Help our community.

What Is Cannabinol (CBN)?

You’ve heard about CBD and THC…but what about CBN?

What Is Cannibinol (CBN)?

The number of known cannabinoids is over a hundred. Each one has its own set of effects. People with limited knowledge of cannabinol (CBN) have assumed that it is simply a degraded, less potent cannabinoid derived from THC. It’s barely present in cannabis flowers and it is nowhere near as psychoactive as THC. You can find more cannabinol in older, degraded material making anything with its presence less desirable. As a result, this cannabinoid hasn’t received much attention. However, the industry is catching on to the fact that CBN has therapeutic effects that benefit people who are sensitive to THC. Now, more CBN is being found in cannabis products like topicals, edibles, capsules and more.

What Is Cannabinol (CBN)  & What Does It Do?

Any company with a cannabinol product is using the powerful sedative effects as a selling point. According to Steep Hill labs, Cannabinol is the most sedative known cannabinoid. They claim that 5mg of cannabinol is equal to 10mg of diazepam (valium) in terms of body relaxation. There’s a theory that the reason Indica strains make you sleepier is that they have higher CBN levels. So if you don’t like buds that makes you sleepy, look for strains or products with slim to no cannabinol content.

Cannabis plants produce enzymes which turn CBGA into the “raw cannabinoids” like THCA, CBDA and CBCA. THCA when heated turns into THC and THCV. Aged THCA turns into CBNA which converts into CBN. Research has shown cannabinol to have a number of therapeutic benefits.

Researchers studied the feeding patterns of rats after administering cannabinol. What they found was that rats treated with CBN were quicker to eat, ate more and for longer durations of time. The research concluded the less popular cannabinoid was a viable nonpsychoactive appetite stimulant.

2006 study found that CBN and several other cannabinoids have the ability to control the growth of cancer cells. CBN was specifically able to control a type of lung tumor called Lewis carcinoma.

Back in 1974, researchers found that THC, CBD and CBN all had anticonvulsant properties but potency-wise, CBN is less active than the other two.

In 2002, Swedish researchers at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Lund University Hospital found out cannabinol and THC activate the same pain pathways.

More Research On Effects

Studies on male volunteers illustrated that doses of CBN did not provide the psychoactive effects that THC did. The study also noted that subjects felt more “drugged, drunk, dizzy and drowsy” when it was combined to THC. They concluded that, “CBN increases the effect of THC on some aspects of physiological and psychological processes, but that these effects are small.”

On the other hand, some studies didn’t note as much of a synergetic effect when combined with THC. One study found the combination of THC and CBN did nothing to change “the quality, intensity, or duration of the effects of THC alone.”

Research has also shown that cannabinol is capable of slowing the onset of symptoms from ALS.

Additional research shows cannabinol has antibacterial capabilities as a topical. The study showed “potent activity against MRSA.”

Experimental and preclinical studies have shown topical cannabinol’s potential for treating skin conditions like psoriasis or burns.

Where Can You Find It?

Up until lately, the only place you could find CBN was in extremely small concentrations of certain weed strains. The concentrations in flowers are typically 1 percent or less. Until recently, extracts have either focused on isolating THC or CBD. Fortunately, less common cannabinoids like delta 8 THC are starting to be isolated and extracted. CBN is a little different. Since it exists in such small quantities in flower, we haven’t seen CBN in a concentrated form like with THC, delta 8 or THC-O-acetate. However, with CBN a little goes a much longer way than it would with equal quantities of THC or CBD.

Mary’s Medicinals Cannabinol Capsules is one form that is easy to ingest for any type of patient suffering from sleep-deprivation. Capsules make it easy to know exactly how much you’re consuming in a single sitting. Mary’s Medicinals also has high-cannabinol transdermal patches.

For patients that don’t like patches or swallowing pills, SpOILed Patients Collective makes a high-dose CBN drink called Hornet Hibernate. SpOILed says their CBN drink contains a wide spectrum of cannabinoids including CBC, CBD and small amounts of THC for the entourage effects. From their experience with the Hornet Hibernate, CBN amplifies the effects of THC. Smoking a few bowls on top of a teaspoon will “send you to the moon,” SpOILed tells us. Each bottle contains about 10 to 12 percent CBN and you’ll only need a teaspoon without the smoke to get a solid nights sleep, illustrating how far a little goes. They’re working on versions with delta-8 THC or delta-9 THC for patients that need them.

The Hornet Hibernate is approved by the veterans of the Weed For Warriors Project. SpOILed says the combination of CBD and CBN has been helping veterans to get off of fentanyl patches and curb opiate addictions. They claim the healing properties of the CBD combined with the sedative effects of CBN have helped many of their patients through hard times.

Final Hit: What Is Cannabinol?

The thing that sets cannabinol apart from the other cannabinoids in weed is the strong sedative ability. It can also stimulate appetite and curb anxiety without the side effects of a medication like a valium. The research on cannabinol, especially on humans is currently lacking. As more research is conducted on CBN, we may find even more uses for it. Most of the reported effects don’t have much to back them up yet.

Source: https://hightimes.com/guides/what-is-cannibinol-cbn/

 

Terpenes: Learn how terpenes work synergistically with cannabinoids

Introduction to Terpenes

The cannabis plant consists of a wide variety of chemicals and compounds. About 140 of these belong to a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes (pronounced tur-peens). You may have also heard people talk about terpenoids. The words terpene and terpenoid are increasingly used interchangeably, although these terms do have different meanings. The main difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (meaning the only elements present are carbon and hydrogen); whereas, terpenoids have been denatured by oxidation (drying and curing the flowers) or chemically modified.

noseTerpenes are synthesized in cannabis in secretory cells inside glandular trichomes, and production is increased with light exposure. These terpenes are mostly found in high concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers prior to senescence (the condition or process of deterioration with age). The essential oil is extracted from the plant material by steam distillation or vaporization. Many terpenes vaporize around the same temperature as THC (which boils at about 157°C), but some terpenes are more volatile than others. Terpenes also play an incredibly important role by providing the plant with natural protection from bacteria and fungus, insects and other environmental stresses.

It is well established that cannabis is capable of affecting the mind, emotions and behavior. The main psychotropic cannabinoid, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been intensely studied. However, many of the other cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids found in medical marijuana that play a big role in boosting the therapeutic effect of cannabis remain understudied.

Terpenes are common constituents of flavorings and fragrances. Terpenes, unlike cannabinoids, are responsible for the aroma of cannabis. The FDA and other agencies have generally recognized terpenes as “safe.” Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters; they are prone to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats; they act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (similar to antidepressants like Prozac); they enhance norepinephrine activity (similar to tricyclic antidepressants like Elavil); they increase dopamine activity; and they augment GABA (the “downer” neurotransmitter that counters glutamate, the “upper”). However, more specific research is needed for improved accuracy in describing and predicting how terpenes in cannabis can be used medicinally to help treat specific ailments / health conditions.

Synergistic Effects

The Carlini et al study demonstrated that there may be potentiation (a form of synaptic plasticity that is known to be important for learning and memory) of the effects of THC by other substances present in cannabis. The double-blind study found that cannabis with equal or higher levels of CBD and CBN to THC induced effects two to four times greater than expected from THC content alone. The effects of smoking twice as much of a THC-only strain were no different than that of the placebo.

This suggestion was reinforced by a study done by Wilkinson et al to determine whether there is any advantage in using cannabis extracts compared with using isolated THC. A standardized cannabis extract of THC, CBD and CBN (SCE), another with pure THC, and also one with a THC-free extract (CBD) were tested on a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a rat brain slice model of epilepsy.

Scientists found that SCE inhibited spasticity in the MS model to a comparable level of THC alone, and caused a more rapid onset of muscle relaxation and a reduction in the time to maximum effect than the THC alone. The CBD caused no inhibition of spasticity. However, in the epilepsy model, SCE was a much more potent and again more rapidly-acting anticonvulsant than isolated THC; however, in this model, the CBD also exhibited anticonvulsant activity. CBD did not inhibit seizures, nor did it modulate the activity of THC in this model. Therefore, as far as some actions of cannabis were concerned (e.g. anti-spasticity), THC was the active constituent, which might be modified by the presence of other components. However, for other effects (e.g. anticonvulsant properties) THC, although active, might not be necessary for the observed effect. Above all, these results demonstrated that not all of the therapeutic actions of cannabis herb is due to the THC content.

Dr. Ethan Russo further supports this theory with scientific evidence by demonstrating that non-cannabinoid plant components such as terpenes serve as inhibitors to THC’s intoxicating effects, thereby increasing THC’s therapeutic index. This “phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy,” as Russo calls it, increases the potential of cannabis-based medicinal extracts to treat pain, inflammation, fungal and bacterial infections, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy and even cancer.

What are Flavonoids?

Flavonoids are one of the largest nutrient families known to scientists, and include over 6,000 already-identified family members. About 20 of these compounds, including apigenin, quercetin, cannflavin A and cannflavin B (so far unique to cannabis), β-sitosterol, vitexin, isovitexin, kaempferol, luteolin and orientin have been identified in the cannabis plant. Flavonoids are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory health benefits, as well as their contribution of vibrant color to the many of the foods we eat (the blue in blueberries or the red in raspberries).

Some flavonoids extracted from the cannabis plant have been tested for pharmacological effects. The clinical findings are promising, but further research is needed to fully understand what role flavonoids play in the overall therapeutic effects of cannabis treatment, especially how they interact with cannabinoids by either synergistically enhancing them or reducing their effects.

The Terpene Wheel

Terpenes have been found to be essential building blocks of complex plant hormones and molecules, pigments, sterols and even cannabinoids. Most notably, terpenes are responsible for the pleasant, or not so pleasant, aromas of cannabis and the physiological effects associated with them. Patients will often ask to smell the cannabis when selecting their medicine. The idea is that certain aromas help identify different strains and their effects.

As the Casano et al study shows, medical marijuana strains can vary greatly from one source to another, and even from one harvest to another. Those with relatively high concentrations of specific terpenes do, however, make them easier to identify by their smell than other strains. Most agree that varieties that smell of musk or of clove deliver sedative, relaxing effects (high level of the terpene myrcene); piney smells help promote mental alertness and memory retention (high level of the terpene pinene); and lemony aromas are favored for general uplift in mood and attitude (high level of limonene).

Flavor wheel (source: GreenHouse Seeds Co.)

Flavor wheel (source: GreenHouse Seeds Co.)

In a spectral analysis performed by Green House Seed Co., they were able to identify the terpenes in each of their strains, and developed a “flavor wheel” to help medical marijuana patients decide on their strain of choice based on the effects desired. Although one of the primary purposes of the wheel was to market different seeds for this particular company, the concept and vocabulary used is becoming an invaluable tool for medical marijuana patients, caregivers, and cultivators alike.

Since then, several companies have developed their own terpene and weed wheels, albeit for the same reasons — to market their own products or services — and that’s OK. By mapping out terpene profiles, we are able to predict and even manipulate the effects and medicinal value of varieties, giving breeders endless opportunities for developing new, highly-desired cannabis strains by basing breeding decisions on real analytical data. The more we are able to communicate using the same language, the easier it is for everyone to understand clearly what medicine they are getting.

Terpenes in Cannabis

Myrcene

Myrcene, specifically β-myrcene, is a monoterpene and the most common terpene produced by cannabis (some varieties contain up to 60% of the essential oil). Its aroma has been described as musky, earthy, herbal – akin to cloves. A high myrcene level in cannabis (usually above 0.5%) results in the well-known “couch-lock” effect of classic Indica strains. Myrcene is found in oil of hops, citrus fruits, bay leaves, eucalyptus, wild thyme, lemon grass and many other plants.

Myrcene has some very special medicinal properties, including lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier easier and more quickly. In the case of cannabinoids (like THC), myrcene allows the effects of the cannabinoid to take effect more quickly. More uniquely still, myrcene has been shown to increase the maximum saturation level of the CB1 receptor, allowing for a greater maximum psychoactive effect.

Myrcene is a potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and antimutagenic. It blocks the action of cytochrome, aflatoxin B and other pro-mutagenic carcinogens. The Bonamin et al study focused on the role of β-myrcene in preventing peptic ulcer disease. The study revealed that β-myrcene acts as an inhibitor of gastric and duodenal ulcers, suggesting it may be helpful in preventing peptic ulcer disease. Its sedative and relaxing effects also make it ideal for the treatment of insomnia and pain.

Since myrcene is normally found in essential oil from citrus fruit, many claim eating a fresh mango about 45 minutes before consuming cannabis will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity. Be sure to choose a mango that is ripe otherwise the myrcene level will be too low to make a difference.

Pinene

Pinene is a bicyclic monoterpenoid. Akin to its name, pinene has distinctive aromas of pine and fir. There are two structural isomers of pinene found in nature: α-pinene and β-pinene. Both forms are important components of pine resin. α-pinene is the most widely encountered terpenoid in nature. Pinene is found in many other conifers, as well as in non-coniferous plants. It is found mostly in balsamic resin, pine woods and some citrus fruits. The two isomers of pinene constitute the main component of wood turpentine. Pinene is one of the principal monoterpenes that is important physiologically in both plants and animals. It tends to react with other chemicals, forming a variety of other terpenes (like limonene) and other compounds.

Pinene is used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory, expectorant, bronchodilator and local antiseptic. α-pinene is a natural compound isolated from pine needle oil which has shown anti-cancer activityand has been used as an anti-cancer agent in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years. It is also believed that the effects of THC may be lessened if mixed with pinene.

Limonene

Limonene is a monocyclic monoterpenoid and one of two major compounds formed from pinene. As the name suggests, varieties high in limonene have strong citrusy smells like oranges, lemons and limes. Strains high in limonene promote a general uplift in mood and attitude. This citrusy terpene is the major constituent in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper and peppermint, as well as in several pine needle oils.

Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly appears in the bloodstream. It assists in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and other body tissue. It is well documented that limonene suppresses the growth of many species of fungi and bacteria, making it an ideal antifungal agent for ailments such as toenail fungus. Limonene may be beneficial in protecting against various cancers, and orally administered limonene is currently undergoing clinical trials in the treatment of breast cancer. Limonene has been found to even help promote weight-loss.

Plants use limonene as a natural insecticide to ward off predators. Limonene was primarily used in food and perfumes until a couple of decades ago, when it became better known as the main active ingredient in citrus cleaner. It has very low toxicity and adverse effects are rarely associated with it.

Caryophyllene

Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as Thai basils, cloves, cinnamon leaves and black pepper, and in minor quantities in lavender. It’s aroma has been described as peppery, woody and/or spicy. Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the endocannabinoid system (CB2). Studies show β–caryophyllene holds promise in cancer treatment plans. Research shows shows that β–caryophyllene selectively binds to the CB2 receptor and that it is a functional CB2 agonist. Further, β–caryophyllene was identified as a functional non-psychoactive CB2 receptor ligand in foodstuff and as a macrocyclic anti-inflammatory cannabinoid in cannabis.

The Fine/Rosenfeld pain study demonstrates that other phytocannabinoids in combination, especially cannabidiol (CBD) and β-caryophyllene, delivered by the oral route appear to be promising candidates for the treatment of chronic pain due to their high safety and low adverse effects profiles.

The Horváth et al study suggests β-caryophyllene, through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway, may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent nephrotoxicity (poisonous effect on the kidneys) caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin.

The Jeena, Liju et al study investigated the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from black pepper, of which caryophyllene is a main constituent, and studied its pharmacological properties. Black pepper oil was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. This suggests that high-caryophyllene strains may be useful in treating a number of medical issues such as arthritis and neuropathy pain.

Beta-caryophyllene is used especially in chewing gum when combined with other spicy mixtures or citrus flavorings.

Linalool

Linalool is a non-cyclic monoterpenoid and has been described as having floral and lavender undertones. Varieties high in linalool promote calming, relaxing effects.

Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid. Linalool lessens the anxious emotions provoked by pure THC, thus making it helpful in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety. Studies also suggest that linalool boosts the immune system; can significantly reduce lung inflammation; and can restore cognitive and emotional function (making it useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease).

As shown by the Ma, J., Xu et al study, linalool may significantly reduce lung inflammation caused by cigarette smoke by blocking the carcinogenesis induced by benz[α]anthracene, a component of the tar generated by the combustion of tobacco. This finding indicates limonene may be helpful in reducing the harm caused by inhaling cannabis smoke.

Linalool boosts the immune system as it directly activates immune cells through specific receptors and/or pathways. The Sabogal-Guáqueta et al study suggests linalool may reverse the histopathological (the microscopic examination of biological tissues to observe the appearance of diseased cells and tissues in very fine detail) hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease and could restore cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect.

The Environmental Protection Agency has approved its use as a pesticide, flavor agent and scent. It is used in a wide variety of bath and body products and is commonly listed under ingredients for these products as beta linalool, linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, p-linalool and alloocimenol. Its vapors have been shown to be an effective insecticide against fruit flies, fleas and cockroaches.

Linalool has been isolated in several hundred different plants. The Lamiaceae plant and herb family, which includes mints and other scented herbs, are common sources. The Lauraceae plant family, which includes laurels, cinnamon, and rosewood, is also a readily available source. The Rutaceae family, which contains citrus plants, is another viable source. Birch trees and several different plant species that are found in tropical and boreal climate zones also produce linalool. Although technically not plants, some fungi produce linalool, as well. Linalool is a critical precursor in the formation of Vitamin E.

Terpinolene

Terpinolene is a common component of sage and rosemary and is found in the oil derived from Monterey cypress. Its largest use in the United States is in soaps and perfumes. It is also a great insect repellent. Terpinolene is known to have a piney aroma with slight herbal and floral nuances. It tends to have a sweet flavor reminiscent of citrus fruits like oranges and lemons.

Terpinolene has been found to be a central nervous system depressant used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety. Further, terpinolene was found to markedly reduce the protein expression of AKT1 in K562 cells and inhibited cell proliferation involved in a variety of human cancers.

Camphene

Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fir needles. Camphene may play a critical role in cardiovascular disease.

The Vallianou et al study found camphene reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats. Given the importance that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in heart disease, the results of this study provide insight into to how camphene might be used as an alternative to pharmaceutical lipid lowering agents which are proven to cause intestinal problems, liver damage and muscle inflammation. This finding alone warrants further investigation.

Camphene is a minor component of many essential oils such as turpentine, camphor oil, citronella oil and ginger oil. It is used as a food additive for flavoring, and also used in the preparation of fragrances. It is produced industrially by catalytic isomerization of the more common α-pinene.

Terpineol

α-Terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, and 4-terpineol are three closely related monoterpenoids. The aroma of terpineol has been compared to lilacs and flower blossoms. Terpineol is often found in cannabis varieties that have high pinene levels, which unfortunately mask the fragrant aromas of terpineol.

Terpineol, specifically α-terpineol, is known to have calming, relaxing effects. It also exhibits antibiotic, AChe inhibitor and antioxidant antimalarial properties.

Phellandrene

Phellandrene is described as pepperminty, with a slight scent of citrus. Phellandrene is believed to have special medicinal values. It has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat digestive disorders. It is one of the main compounds in turmeric leaf oil, which is used to prevent and treat systemic fungal infections.

Phellandrene is perhaps the easiest terpene to identify in the lab. When a solution of phellandrene in a solvent (or an oil containing phellandrene) is treated with a concentrated solution of sodium nitrate and then with a few drops of glacial acetic acid, very large crystals of phellandrene nitrate speedily form.

Phellandrene was first discovered in eucalyptus oil. It wasn’t until the early 1900s that it was actually constituted and shown that phellandrene from eucalyptus oil contained two isomeric phellandrene (usually referred to as α-phellandrene and β-phellandrene), and on oxidation with potassium permanganate gave distinct acids, concluding that the acids had been derived from two different isomeric phellandrene. Before that, phellandrene was mistaken for pinene or limonene. Today, we are aware of many essential oils where phellandrene is present. It is, however, a somewhat uncertain terpene as it can only be detected in the oils of some species, especially in Eucalypts, at particular times of the year.

Phellandrene can be found in a number of herbs and spices, including cinnamon, garlic, dill, ginger and parsley. A number of plants produce β-phellandrene as a constituent of their essential oils, including lavender and grand fir. The recognizable odors of some essential oils depend almost entirely upon the presence of phellandrene. Oil of pepper and dill oil are composed almost entirely of phellandrene. The principal constituent in oil of ginger is phellandrene. Phellandrene, particularly α-phellandrene, is absorbed through the skin, making it attractive for use in perfumes. It is also used as a flavoring for food products.

Carene

Delta-3-carene is a bicyclic monoterpene with a sweet, pungent odor. It is found naturally in many healthy, beneficial essential oils, including cypress oil, juniper berry oil and fir needle essential oils. In higher concentrations, delta-3-carene can be a central nervous system depressant. It is often used to dry out excess body fluids, such as tears, mucus, and sweat.

It is nontoxic, but may cause irritation when inhaled. Perhaps high concentrations of delta-3-carene in some strains may be partially responsible for symptoms of coughing, itchy throat and eye afflictions when smoking cannabis.

Delta-3-carene is also naturally present in pine extract, bell pepper, basil oil, grapefruit and orange juices, citrus peel oils from fruits like lemons, limes, mandarins, tangerines, oranges and kumquats.

Carene is a major component of turpentine and is used as a flavoring in many products.

Humulene

Humulene is a sesquiterpene also known as α-humulene and α–caryophyllene; an isomer of β–caryophyllene. Humulene is found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, among other naturally occurring substances. Humulene is what gives beer its distinct ‘hoppy’ aroma.

Humulene is considered to be anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with β–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine. It aids in weight loss by acting as an appetite suppressant.

Pulegone

Pulegone, a monocyclic monoterpenoid, is a minor component of cannabis. Higher concentrations of pulegone are found in rosemary. Rosemary breaks down acetylcholine in the brain, allowing nerve cells to communicate more effectively with one another.

An ethnopharmacology study indicates pulegone may have significant sedative and fever-reducing properties. It may also alleviate the side effects of short-term memory loss sometimes associated with higher levels of THC.

Pulegone has a pleasant peppermint aroma and is considered to be a strong insecticide.

Sabinene

Sabinene is a bicyclic monoterpene whose aromas are reminiscent of the holidays (pines, oranges, spices). Results of an ongoing study by Valente et al suggest that sabinene should be explored further as a natural source of new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs for the development of food supplements, nutraceuticals or plant-based medicines.

Sabinene occurs in many plants, including Norway spruce, black pepper, basil and Myristica fragrans (an evergreen indigenous to the Moluccas)—the Spice Islands of Indonesia. The seeds of the Myristica fragrans are the world’s main source of nutmeg. Sabinene exists as (+)- and (–)-enantiomers.

Geraniol

Geraniol produces a sweet, delightful smell similar to roses. This makes geraniol a popular choice for many bath and body products. It is also known to be an effective mosquito repellant. Medically, geraniol shows promise in the treatment of neuropathy.

Source: https://www.medicaljane.com/category/cannabis-classroom/terpenes/#terpenes-in-cannabis

 

Binge Drinking Drops In States With Recreational Marijuana

(Photo by Keith Bedford/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

Binge drinking across the United States is at an all time high. Yet, a new report from the Wall Street investment firm Cowen & Company shows that this dangerous alcoholic behavior is on the decline in states that have legalized the leaf in a manner similar to alcohol.

It was just a month ago that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published new data suggesting that more Americans are now engaging in regular binge drinking. What was once considered a foolish exploit of College students has now apparently infiltrated citizens from every demographic and all walks of life.

The CDC found that Americans sucked down 17 billion alcoholic beverages in 2015. By definition, the term “binge drinking,” is five or more drinks for men, and four or more for women in a span of around two hours. Thirty-seven million adults (about 1 in 6 people) engage in this activity at least once a week, the report finds.

But the investment analysts at Cowen published a document earlier this week that provides a little hope for an America headed for cirrhosis of the liver. It seems that binge drinking is on the decline in states that have legal marijuana laws on the books. More specifically, it is those states like Colorado and Washington, some of the first U.S. jurisdictions to legalize for recreational use, where binge drinking is now less prominent.

“In legal adult use cannabis states,” the analysts wrote, “the number binge drinking sessions per month (for states legal through 2016) was -9% below the national average.”

What’s more is legal marijuana states, where adults 21 and older can walk into a dispensary and purchase a variety of cannabis products, experienced 13 percent less binge drinking than areas of prohibition. The writing is on the wall – people with legal access to recreational marijuana are opting to spend either all or a portion of their booze budget on a substance that has been deemed “a safer alternative.”

 Marijuana may never run the booze business out on a rail, Cowen says, but there are some interesting dynamics that could throw a wrench in the gears of this inebriation leader.

“We have consistently argued that cannabis and alcohol are substitute social lubricants,” the report reads. “To be sure, we do not dispute that alcohol will continue to be quite popular in the U.S. (generating over $210 bn in annual retail sales today). We are, however, focused on the marginal alcohol unit, which given the cannabis category’s much smaller size, creates a sizable opportunity for the cannabis industry.”

As more states move into legalization, the report says, making mention of Michigan and Illinois as being the two most likely, the firm believes binge drinking rates will drop even more. This is mostly due to the fact that cannabis keeps gaining popularity and beer sales continue to decline.

As it stands, those states without recreational marijuana laws are experiencing an increase in binge drinking. “Non-cannabis states averaged 7.4 drinks per binge, ~12% higher than the 6.6 drinks per binge seen in adult use cannabis states,” the report reads.

In addition, the report also finds that Cowen’s previous prediction over the size of the national cannabis market was low. In the past, the firm estimated that if the federal government ended prohibition today, the cannabis industry would be worth $50 billion by 2026. Cowen now says the industry has already hit that mark. It now expects the U.S. cannabis market to grow to around $75 billion within the next 12 years.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gradsoflife/2018/03/29/rebuilding-puerto-rico-one-youth-at-a-time/#394f22e2dba5

 

Report: Arizona Has 159,000 Patients and Sold 8,194 Lbs. of Marijuana

Tucson Marijuana Dispensaries

The Arizona Department of Health Services’ (ADHS) latest medical marijuana program report, which covers through the month of February 2018, reveals that there are 158,488 active medical marijuana patients in Arizona.

Maricopa County has the largest number of patients with 101,023. Pima County was second with 21,999 patients, then Pinal County with 8,860 and Yavapai County with 8,088.

Arizona medical marijuana patients’ ages range from adolescents to seniors:

  • Under 18 – 218 patients
  • 18 to 30 – 39,177
  • 31 to 40 – 32,528
  • 41 to 50 – 24,786
  • 51 to 60 – 26,469
  • 61 to 70 – 25,794
  • 71 to 80 – 7,862
  • 81 and older – 1,654

According to the data, there are 96,744 males (61.04%) and 61,744 females (38.96%) with medical marijuana cards, and the most common qualifying condition in Arizona is chronic pain.

Arizona patients’ medical marijuana qualifying conditions:

  • Chronic Pain – 135,863 patients (85.72%)
  • Cancer – 3,750
  • PTSD – 2,036
  • Seizures – 1,197
  • Muscle Spams – 1,182
  • Glaucoma – 1,041
  • Hepatitis C – 868
  • Nausea – 800
  • HIV/AIDS – 636
  • Crohn’s disease – 524
  • Cachexia – 117
  • Alzheimer’s disease – 63
  • Sclerosis – 47
  • Two or more conditions – 10,364

In February, dispensaries sold a total of 8,194 pounds (131,112 ounces) of marijuana. Here’s an itemized list of marijuana sold:

  • Marijuana flower – 7,497 pounds (119,965 ounces)
  • Marijuana edibles – 363 pounds
  • Other marijuana – 333 pounds

Source: https://azmarijuana.com/arizona-medical-marijuana-news/arizonas-medical-marijuana-program-nearing-160000-patients/

 

 

Marijuana legalization could help offset opioid epidemic, studies find

(CNN)Experts have proposed using medical marijuana to help Americans struggling with opioid addiction. Now, two studies suggest that there is merit to that strategy.

The studies, published Monday in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine, compared opioid prescription patterns in states that have enacted medical cannabis laws with those that have not. One of the studies looked at opioid prescriptions covered by Medicare Part D between 2010 and 2015, while the other looked at opioid prescriptions covered by Medicaid between 2011 and 2016.
The researchers found that states that allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes had 2.21 million fewer daily doses of opioids prescribed per year under Medicare Part D, compared with those states without medical cannabis laws. Opioid prescriptions under Medicaid also dropped by 5.88% in states with medical cannabis laws compared with states without such laws, according to the studies.
“This study adds one more brick in the wall in the argument that cannabis clearly has medical applications,” said David Bradford, professor of public administration and policy at the University of Georgia and a lead author of the Medicare study.
“And for pain patients in particular, our work adds to the argument that cannabis can be effective.”
Medicare Part D, the optional prescription drug benefit plan for those enrolled in Medicare, covers more than 42 million Americans, including those 65 or older. Medicaid provides health coverage to more than 73 million low-income individuals in the US, according to the program’s website.
“Medicare and Medicaid publishes this data, and we’re free to use it, and anyone who’s interested can download the data,” Bradford said. “But that means that we don’t know what’s going on with the privately insured and the uninsured population, and for that, I’m afraid the data sets are proprietary and expensive.”

‘This crisis is very real’

The new research comes as the United States remains entangled in the worst opioid epidemic the world has ever seen. Opioid overdose has risen dramatically over the past 15 years and has been implicated in over 500,000 deaths since 2000 — more than the number of Americans killed in World War II.
“As somebody who treats patients with opioid use disorders, this crisis is

Arizona Legislature Ready to Approve Using Medical Marijuana to Treat Opioid Abuse

Arizona Legislature Ready to Approve Using Medical Marijuana to Treat Opioid Abuse

Medical marijuana will soon be recommended as a treatment for opioid addiction if a Republican-sponsored bill quietly progressing through the Arizona Legislature is successful.

House Bill 2064, introduced by Representative Vince Leach, was originally intended only to ban dispensaries from selling edibles in packaging that could be appealing to children. But a little-noticed amendment to the bill would also add opioid use disorder to the list of medical conditions that can legally be treated with medical marijuana.

“HB 2064 went from being something that I found, in its original language and apparent intent, annoying,” said Mikel Weisser, the executive director at the Arizona chapter of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, (NORML). “Now, with the opioid use disorder added, it’s something I want to see happen.”

Using marijuana to treat opioid addiction is highly controversial. But, surprisingly enough, what would amount to a major change in state policy has received virtually no opposition so far.

When the bill came before the Senate Commerce and Public Safety committee on Monday, Ed Gogek — author of Marijuana Debunked: A handbook for parents, pundits and politicians who want to know the case against legalization — was the only one to testify against it.

As soon as he was done talking, the committee passed the bill unanimously, without any further discussion. It has already cleared the House of Representatives.

Equally surprising is the bill’s sponsor. Leach, a Republican from Saddlebrooke, isn’t exactly known for being a friend of the medical marijuana industry. Ever year, he introduces a long list of legislation that targets dispensaries and cardholders.

He didn’t immediately respond to a request to a comment on Thursday afternoon about his change of heart. But Representative Randy Friese, a Democrat from Tucson, said that the Democratic caucus had negotiated with Leach to get the amendment added to the bill.

 

Making any changes to voter-approved ballot initiative like Arizona’s medical marijuana law requires a three-fourths majority. So this was a rare instance where Democrats had some leverage, since the bill wouldn’t have been able to pass through the House of Representatives without their support.

“When the votes weren’t there, Mr. Leach went back to the drawing board and apparently concluded that debilitating medical conditions should now include opioid use disorder,” said Kevin DeMenna, a lobbyist for the Arizona Dispensary Association.

Though his client had originally opposed the bill, it’s now “a much improved piece of legislation,” DeMenna said.

Currently, state law allows doctors to prescribe medical marijuana to patients who suffer from conditions including cancer, glaucoma, HIV, hepatitis C, Crohn’s disease, or anything that causes muscle spasms, severe nausea, or chronic pain. Post-traumatic stress disorder was added to the list in 2014, after some debate.

Eventually, the Arizona Dispensary Association would eventually like to get rid of that list of qualifying conditions altogether, leaving it up to doctors to determine who should get a medical marijuana card. In the meantime, DeMenna said, adding opioid addiction to the list is a step in the right direction.

Whether Governor Doug Ducey — who, like Leach, is no fan of medical marijuana — will sign the bill is another question. The idea of using cannabis to treat opioid addiction had been floated during this year’s special session, but was rejected outright, Mikel Weisser of NORML pointed out.

“I’m not sure that will get the reception that we want on the Ninth Floor,” he said. “But I think it’s a real step forward to be a state that’s considering addressing opioid dependency by looking at medical marijuana.”

Source: http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/news/medical-cannabis-extracts-legal-in-arizona-or-not-10232352

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069

 

Study: Marijuana Decriminalization Leads To Decreased Arrests, No Increase In Youth Use

Marijuana Decriminalization

St. Louis, MO: State laws reducing minor marijuana possession offenses from criminal to civil violations (aka decriminalization) are associated with dramatic reductions in drug-related arrests, and are not linked to any uptick in youth cannabis use, according to data published by researchers affiliated with Washington University and the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Investigators examined the impact of cannabis decriminalization on arrests and youth cannabis use in five states that passed decriminalization measures between the years 2008 and 2014: Massachusetts (decriminalized in 2008), Connecticut (2011), Rhode Island (2013), Vermont (2013), and Maryland (2014). Data on cannabis use were obtained from state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys; arrest data were obtained from federal crime statistics.

Authors reported: “Decriminalization of cannabis in five states between the years 2009 and 2014 was associated with large and immediate decreases in drug-related arrests for both youth and adults. … The sharp drop in arrest rates suggests that implementation of these policies likely changed police behavior as intended.”

They further reported: “Decriminalization was not associated with increased cannabis use either in aggregate or in any of the five states analyzed separately, nor did we see any delayed effects in a lag analysis, which allowed for the possibility of a two-year (one period) delay in policy impact. In fact, the lag analysis suggested a potential protective effect of decriminalization.” In two of the five states assessed, Rhode Island and Vermont, researchers determined that the prevalence of youth cannabis use declined following the enactment of decriminalization.

Investigators concluded: “[I]mplementation of cannabis decriminalization likely leads to a large decrease in the number of arrests among youth (as well as adults) and we see no evidence of increases in youth cannabis use. On the contrary, cannabis use rates declined after decriminalization. … These findings are consistent with the interpretation that decriminalization policies likely succeed with respect to their intended effects and that their short-term unintended consequences are minimal.”

Thirteen states currently impose either partial or full decriminalization. Nine additional states and Washington, DC have subsequently amended their decriminalization laws in a manner that fully legalizes the use of marijuana by adults.

Source: http://norml.org/news/2018/03/22/study-marijuana-decriminalization-leads-to-decreased-arrests-no-increase-in-youth-use

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069

 

Cannabis for the Treatment of Psychosis

The evidence supporting the use of medical marijuana continues to grow.

Marijuana contains many cannabinoid-based compounds, including delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).  Recent Internet ads have made claims that “CBD can cure arthritis, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, schizophrenia, and [most recently] epilepsy.”  Somehow one particular component of marijuana plant has become much more popular than all of the sixty (at least) other biologically active molecules that have been isolated from this plant.  Cannabidiol is the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant.  Both CBD and THC are capable of interacting with the complex variety of receptor proteins that exist in the human brain.  However, they do not do so with the same degree of effectiveness.  To date, all of the positive evidence supporting the use of medical marijuana in humans has come from studies of the entire plant or experimental investigations of THC.  A recent study published in the Journal of Neuroscience (4 May 2016, 36(18): 5160-5169) has shown CBD has significant therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of schizophrenia.  These scientists have also identified where CBD likely acts in the brains of schizophrenics, the nucleus accumbens (the brain’s primary pleasure center), and how it is able to produce effects similar to standard antipsychotic medications.

This discovery stands in stark contrast to previous claims that marijuana induces psychosis.  Overall, today’s scientists are being more open-minded about the benefits of marijuana and are trying to bring less bias to their investigations.  One recent study asked whether marijuana use was associated with an earlier age of onset for the first episode of schizophrenia.  The researchers concluded that there was no significant relationship between the onset of illness and marijuana use that could not be accounted for by other demographic and clinical variables.  Meaning, once again it is important to take notice of all of the other variables that contribute to developing psychosis.

Recent studies have also demonstrated that the endogenous marijuana receptors in the brain of someone with schizophrenia respond differently than those in the brain of someone without a predisposition to this disorder. This recent report now documents that a safe, non-psychoactive component of marijuana may be able to trigger the same molecular signaling pathways associated with the effects of classic antipsychotic medications.  The evidence supporting the use of medical marijuana continues to become more compelling.

© Gary L. Wenk, Ph.D. Author of “Your Brain on Food(link is external),” 2nd Ed, 2015 (Oxford University Press)

Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/your-brain-food/201605/cannabis-the-treatment-psychosis

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069

Marijuana for Anxiety

Anxiety and Marijuana: CBD, THC, CBD-A All You Need To Know About Weeds Effects on Mental Health

marijuana and anxiety

 Medical Marijuana Can Treat Anxiety

With a global increase of medical marijuana use to treat health conditions, advocates and studies are showing that medical marijuana can be used to treat anxiety disorders. Advocates believe that the chemical makeup of cannabis can be beneficial in treating anxiety, while others argue that it can actually cause anxiety.

Medical marijuana has been used for centuries to treat depression and other medical conditions. More than 400 years ago, cannabis was used to treat depression in India and has since been studied and analyzed to determine the medical benefits and disadvantages for patients. Today, many states across America have legalized the use of medical marijuana, but usage still remains illegal under U.S. federal law.

 

 

When taking a close look at medical studies and results of medical marijuana used to treat anxiety, it’s evident that the chemical makeup, specifically the presence of the chemical compound Cannabidiol, commonly known as CBD, is the main ingredient to treat anxiety. Another compound, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, can prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer patients, but may have a reverse affect on treatment for anxiety.

 

The Chemical Makeup of Medical Marijuana

CannabinoidGraphic

Medical marijuana, or medical cannabis, is the use of cannabis and its chemical compounds to treat illnesses, diseases and improve symptoms.

The cannabis plant has historically been used worldwide to treat illness and health conditions. The American Medical Association and other medical organizations strongly oppose its use for medical reasons, but the American Academy of Pediatrics believes that the use of medical cannabinoids, the natural compounds that make up the genetics of medical marijuana, can be a therapy for a number of medical conditions, but do not recommend use until more research is complete.

There are 85 natural compounds in cannabis, known as cannabinoids, which all relieve symptoms of illness by attaching to the receptors in the brain that look for similar compounds that occur naturally in the human body. Strains of medical marijuana are specifically bred to contain particular levels of each compound recommended for different conditions.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the cannabis compound that has found to have significant benefits for treating people with anxiety. CBD-rich cannabis can be treated for patients seeking anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, anti-anxiety and anti-spasm affects. CBD does not make people feel “stoned” or “high,” and can actually counteract the anxiety-driven tendencies of THC. CBD is one 85 natural compounds found in cannabis. It is a major element, making up 40 percent of the plant’s extract and has a wider medical benefit than THC.

The other popular compound to treat medical conditions is tetrahydrocannibinol, or THC, and can be used to relax muscles, reduce inflammation, reduce seizures stimulate appetite, lower blood pressure and is an anti-depressant.

The Right Balance of CBD and THC to Treat Anxiety

marijuana

 

Most who use medical marijuana say it helps relieve anxiety, but others say they feel more anxious after using. There are a wide variety of marijuana strains, which have different levels of chemicals that have various levels of the common chemicals – THC and CBD.

Research shows that THC and CBD can have opposite effects when used to treat anxiety disorders. THC is linked to feelings of paranoia and anxiety, because it activates the amygdala area of the brain, which is responsible for fear. On the alternate, CBD counteracts such feelings from THC. Studies show that taking CBD on its own can lower – even eliminate – anxiety.

Most medical marijuana plants are bread to be high in levels of THC, because it is commonly used to treat more popular health conditions, such as cancer, eating disorders and seizure disorders. THC also sells, because it provides a floating, euphoric feeling that most people commonly experience when using marijuana. Strains with high levels of CBD have only recently became popular in medical usage because of the growing awareness of its benefits.

For those looking to treat anxiety disorders with cannabis, treatment relies heavily on the appropriate dose. Research proves that THC begins to raise anxiety levels after a certain threshold is passed. Those using medical marijuana to treat anxiety will need to find strains with high compounds of CBD when purchasing medical cannabis.

Benefits of Medical Marijuana Studies Prove CBD Treats Anxiety

 marijuan studies anxiety dissorders

 

Certain medical marijuana strains with higher levels of CBD have proven to help treat anxiety disorders. The CBD produces therapeutic affects for patients and can also help patients with Crohn’s Disease or glaucoma. Animal studies suggest that CBD present in cannabis lessens anxiety and reduces the severity and frequency of seizures.

According to a study published by the Institute of Psychiatry, CBD proved to offer great psychiatric potential, including uses as an antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like compound. During the study, animals who had been given CBD experienced lower levels of anxiety and depression in a series of tests, such as swimming and puzzle mazes, than animals who had not been given CBD.

Another study aimed to investigate the use of CBD for treating a social anxiety disorder. The study, published by the Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Division of Psychiatry, found that CBD was associated with significantly decreased subjective anxiety.

The study states that in the first session, subjects were given an oral does of CBD or placebo. Results suggested that CBD reduced anxiety in social anxiety disorder patients because it is related to CBD’s effects on activity in specific mood-altering brain areas. (PubMed)

History of Medical Marijuana For The Treatment of Anxiety

marijuana stamp history

In today’s world, the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes is a hot topic. It’s very controversial, with many arguing from all sides of the debate. Yet, the use of marijuana to treat health conditions and illnesses dates back centuries.

  • More than 400 years ago, cannabis was used to treat depression and stress relief in India. Specifically, CBD-rich medical marijuana has a long history of being used to treat health problems, including anxiety. The drug’s popularity as a medicine spread through Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Ancient physicians prescribed marijuana for everything – pain relief and even childbirth.
  • In the 18th Century, American journals began recommending hemp seeds and roots to treat inflamed skin and venereal disease. Queen Victoria used cannabis to help discomfort for menstrual cramps. An Irish doctor, William O’Shaughnessy, first popularized marijuana’s medical use in England and America.  He found it to ease the pain and discomfort for nausea in cases of rabies, cholera and tetanus.
  • Yet, the increase in demands to feel the “high” produced by cannabis with stronger levels of THC eventually led to marijuana being used recreationally, as opposed to medically. For many years, marijuana production to increase the levels of THC led to the decrease in CBD levels to trace amounts.
  • The 19th Century increase in usage of morphine ultimately led to the U.S. government introducing the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906, created by the Food and Drug Administration. Although it didn’t apply to the use of marijuana, it caused a major shift in the U.S. drug policy.
  • In 1914, the Harrison Act was created in the United States, which made drug use a crime. By 1937, 23 states had outlawed marijuana.
  • In 1937, the Federal Government passed the Marihuana Tax Act, which made nonmedical use of marijuana illegal.
  • By the 1970s, strong anti-drug policies were in full swing. Yet, in 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana use. A dozen states soon followed.
  • In 1998, the British government licensed GW Pharmaceuticals to grow cannabis and develop a consistent plant to extract use for clinical trails. GW’s co-founder Geoffrey Guy, MD, was convinced that by using CBD-rich plants, GW could make medicine of cannabis that had little or no psychoactive effect.
  • In 2009, medical professionals began to discover and test new strains with more CBD than THC. CBD-rich strains were generally not available to cannabis consumers across the United States at this time. Studies analyzed CBD-rich cannabis to determine the medical benefits and disadvantages for patients.

Today, many states across America have legalized the use of medical marijuana, but usage still remains illegal under U.S. federal law.

Worldwide, Uruguay became the first country to remove its prohibition entirely on marijuana in 2013.  Colombia and Costa Rica have bills in Congress that would allow for medical marijuana usage. Jamaica recently passed a law to make it possible to supply marijuana for medical and religious purposes.

Arguments Against Medical Marijuana Use to Treat Anxiety

arguments against marijuana

While most studies prove that medical marijuana can help anxiety, some doctors and anti-drug advocates believe it can make anxiety worse. A common compound found in cannabis, THC, is linked to feelings of paranoia and anxiety, because it activates the amygdala area of the brain, which is responsible for fear.

The University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute stated the following in an online fact sheet titled “Mental Health and Marijuana,” based on information from the National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre in 2012:

“Marijuana may seem to help ease depression before the effects of the drug wear off; however after that, smoking marijuana may make depression worse. Those who use marijuana have been shown to have higher levels of depression and depressive symptoms than those who do not use marijuana.

“Marijuana can lead to symptoms of anxiety, such as panic, in the short-term, but there is a lack of evidence pointing to marijuana as an important risk factor for chronic anxiety disorders… Again, if someone has a genetic vulnerability or has an existing mental health issues, marijuana should be avoided.”

For those looking to treat anxiety disorders with cannabis, treatment relies heavily on the appropriate dose. Research proves that THC begins to raise anxiety levels after a certain threshold is passed. Those using medical marijuana to treat anxiety will need to find strains with high compounds of CBD when purchasing medical cannabis.

Anxiety Disorders Treated with Medical Marijuana Use

anxiety and marijuana

Anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For a person with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety doesn’t go away and gets worse over time, effecting a person’s daily activities, job performance and relationships. Most common forms of anxiety disorders are generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders and social anxiety disorders.

Sometimes, a physical evaluation is advisable to determine if a person’s anxiety is associated with a physical illness. Occasionally, anxiety can be paired with other conditions, such as alcoholism, depression or other coexisting conditions. If other existing conditions exist, a patient should seek treatment for those before treating the anxiety disorder.

Many with a variety of anxiety disorders claim to find relieve from their symptoms of anxiety with use of medical marijuana. Numerous studies have suggested that medical marijuana use can decrease feelings of anxiety. Yet, we’ve only just began studying the benefits of medical marijuana use for those with anxiety, so physicians are not likely to prescribe use to their patients.

Medical Marijuana with CBD can Treat Anxiety and PTSD

When taking a close look at medical studies and results of medical marijuana used to treat anxiety, it’s evident that the chemical makeup, specifically high doses of CBD, is the main ingredient to treat anxiety.

A study aimed to determine CBD’s impact on social anxiety in public speaking showed that those pretreated with a dose of CBD experienced significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort during their speech performance. The placebo group experienced higher levels of anxiety and discomfort. The study stated that CBD holds many advantages over standard social anxiety treatments, such as anti-depressants, due to the quickness of efficiency and absence of severe withdrawal or side affects.

Medical marijuana can help people with PTSD by working with the body’s natural compounds to create a relaxing, reverse effect on the brain. Studies prove that medical marijuana with high levels of CBD provide a therapeutic effect on those with anxiety disorders. For more info you can check Maps latest study here.

Source: http://www.anxietysocialnet.com/ANXIETY-AND-MEDICAL-MARIJUANA

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069