Smoking vs Eating Cannabis, Which Method is for Me???

Ingestion vs. Inhalation











By: Lindsay Howard
Cannabis users have had the longstanding debate since the plant was discovered, is it better to inhale cannabis or eat it? The answer is always in the opinion of the cannabis user, and usually swayed by the affects desired, or illness being remedied. There are benefits from both methods of consumption ranging from timing, strength, and overall functionality.

Inhalation and absorption 

Inhalation is typically through smoking and/ or vaporizing. The plant matter or ‘bud’ is heated using a lighter, torch, or electric heat coil. The plant matter then becomes decarboxylated, and the smoke or vapor is inhaled then quickly exhaled. As the lungs expand the capillaries allow the THC and other cannabinoids to flow through the blood vessels, and hence flow through the blood, causing an almost instant “high” or effect. This can be beneficial for breakthrough pain, nausea, muscle spasms, eye pressure relief, and even those who are looking for fast relief in general. Typically this affect, while fast acting, is the shortest in duration of all methods of consumption, ranging from only 2 to 3 hour. The effects of the cannabis begin fading in strength, after reaching a peak about 15 minutes after inhalation.

Ingestion and absorption

Edibles take an entire different approach, it may take an hour- 1 1/2 hours to begin feeling its affects, however these affects can last up to 4 to 6 hours and some patients have even reported 8 hours. The cannabinoids are decarboxylated using the stove or oven as the main heat source, to make various edibles in the form of candies, juices, teas, brownies and any baked goods you can imagine even hot sauce. Once ingested the cannabis and other cannabinoids pass through the digestive system and are distributed through the blood stream through the capillaries in the stomach, intestines, and is then released in to the liver. From here the liver begins to change the chemical makeup of THC, and it is transformed into a “pro-drug” 11- Hydroxy- THC. This longevity is also accompanied by strength, when released in the blood stream via ingestion the brain-blood barrier is crossed, thus making the effects much more intense and long lasting. 

Bio availability

The great debate of edibles vs. smoking does have scientific backing, known as bio availability.  The bio availability is 4 times greater in ingested cannabis than its smoked counterpart having only 6-10 percent bio availability. The debate ought to be ended here. Cannabis users worldwide must consider their purpose when choosing a method of consumption, however some may choose one for quick onset and the other for longevity and strength. When properly dosed, timed and purposed the debate can be ended and all methods can be successfully utilized.

For more information on How to Use Cannabis as Medicine, or to Obtain your Arizona Medical Marijuana Card in Tucson AZ, Please Contact Natural Healing Care Center at 520-323-0069 or Visit our Website WWW.NATURALHEALINGCARECENTER.COM We are located in the Heart of Tucson AZ and We are here to Help our community.

Can Cannabis Help My Chronic Pain???

How Cannabis is Effective for Different Types of Pain Relief

By: Lindsay Howard

For many years, Cannabis has been recognized for its amazing ability to relieve pain. More importantly, cannabis has also been successful in relieving pain from different origins. As in, pain from the Central Nervous System, inflammation from injury and even neuropathic pain caused by dysfunction in the immune system. With proper application and dosing, Natural Healing Care Center (NHCC), has been delighted to learn how cannabis can be effective for pain relief. Arizona Department of Health Services (AZDHS) reported, as of 2018, out of the total 162,528 medical marijuana card holders in Arizona, 86.18% received their cards for ‘Severe and Chronic Pain’.

Types of Pain

Pain can be placed in three general categories; Nociceptive pain: pain, usually from injury, resulting in inflammation and a sharp or aching sensation. Neuropathic Pain: Stemming from damage to the nervous system and destruction of nerve cells, usually feeling pinching or stabbing in a area of the body (i.e M.S, Diabetes, HIV, Pain from Chemo). Central Pain ‘other’: Pain arising from neurological dysfunction. This type of pain can be a result from injury or surgery, it can also be considered the, ‘catch-all’, for pain symptoms.

Identifying the origin of pain, along with the type, is the most important piece for finding the correct dose and method of cannabis consumption.

“Pain is a synergistic reaction in the body, occurring mostly between brain regions, by way of activated brain cells. These cells directly modulate the pain signals sent through the body, in some cases this is from physical injury resulting in, nociceptive pain. When an injury occurs there is damage to the surrounding tissue and inflammatory cells race to repair any damage.” Ingram 2017. Cannabis is responsible for reducing the signal of pain at the injury site and dampening the effects of those signals as they travel up the spinal cord. A properly dosed regimen of CBD and THC has been successful in relieving pain signals from being so strong (CBD), while lessening the signals affect on the brain (THC).

Neuropathic pain is a slightly more broad type of pain caused by damage to the nervous system. This damage can be a result of disease, like diabetic neuropathy, or injury where the nerves become damaged causing a wide spread of multi-symptom pain. This can range from, Phantom Limb Pain, to something as simple as the tingling sensation when you hit your ‘funny bone’. Unfortunately, neuropathic pain most likely leads to chronic pain, as the nerves don’t heal very fast, making it hard to treat.  (Ingram 2017)

How it Works

Cannabis has been shown to be affective on the, ‘often hard to treat’, neuropathic pain in two very distinct ways: Activating the CB1 receptors that exist in the brain’s, endocannabinoid system, to reduce pain. While also increasing the amount of serotonin produced by the brain, dulling the brain’s amount of pain signals traveling up the Central Nervous System.

 Other Types of Pain

Centralized or Algopathic can be described as, chronic pain developed from extensive acute pain, as in: a result from surgery or an often unknown cause which there are dysfunction in the workings of the nervous system, but no known actual damage. We find this type of pain in patients with Fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome. It is the unknown dynamic of centralized pain, which makes treatment difficult.

Despite the lack of knowledge of where central pain originates, cannabis has been proven to be effective for this type of pain by activating certain receptors in the Endocannabinoid system. This has helped relieve and prevent flare up symptoms from Fibromyalgia and other issues stemming from the central nervous system. Cannabis combats the pain by targeting the brains conception of pain signals and by regulating the actual pain receptors themselves, dampening their signal.

Although there has been very limited research on cannabis, and it’s effect on pain, nearly all studies done on mice have resulted in the astounding beneficial research and lean in the favor of Cannabis as an alternative form of medication. We, at NHCC, have personally experienced the benefits cannabis for treatment, and have been able to learn the importance of proper dosing, along with method of consumption. As research continues, we look forward to learning more about the medicinal properties and benefits of Cannabis.

For more information on How to Use Cannabis as Medicine, or to Obtain your Arizona Medical Marijuana Card in Tucson AZ, Please Contact Natural Healing Care Center at 520-323-0069 or Visit our Website WWW.NATURALHEALINGCARECENTER.COM We are located in the Heart of Tucson AZ and We are here to Help our community.

DOSING THCA: LESS IS MORE

THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) is the non-psychoactive acid form of THC found in the plant when raw. THCA converts to THC when it is decarboxylated. Discover the clinical and laboratory research on THCA for epilepsy, chronic pain, digestive disorders, and more.

How much THCA to take
Photo credit: Leafly
Highlights:
  • Cannabis plants don’t produce THC on their own; rather they create cannabinoids in acid form.
  • To turn THCA into psychoactive THC, it must first be heated (for example, by vaping or smoking).
  • THCA shows great promise in the treatment of epilepsy.
  • A higher dose of THCA combined with THC is sometimes effective for seizures, pain, and arthritis.
  • Scientists have shown that low doses of THCA prevent nausea in rats.

Cannabis doesn’t actually produce THC or CBD. The plant produces all cannabinoids in an acid form. Instead of making THC and CBD directly, it synthesizes tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) from their cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) precursor.

THCA is not psychoactive—it does not activate CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain. In order to make psychoactive THC from THCA, one needs to heat it. This can be done by smoking or vaporizing raw flower, baking edibles, or heating cannabis in a process known as decarboxylation. When smoking cannabis, it is estimated that more than 95% of the THCA is converted to THC. If so, a cannabis smoker might inhale the small amount of remaining THCA, which could also impart a therapeutic effect.

According to several doctors, THCA shows great promise in the treatment of epilepsy. Preclinical research indicates that THCA may be anti-inflammatory and may reduce nausea. One of the most significant features of THCA is its apparent ability to work at very low doses. The therapeutic potential of THCA is all the more noteworthy given that this compound is more readily available than THC or CBD because of the ubiquity of the raw marijuana plant.

Clinical use of THCA

Clinical experience is the best place to start. Dr. Dustin Sulak and Dr. Bonni Goldstein have both reported on the use of THCA in the treatment of patients. In a recent publication, Sulak, Goldstein, and Dr. Russel Saneto describe four case reports of patients using THCA along with other treatments (conventional antiepileptic drugs as well as cannabis). Among these patients, small doses—around 0.1-1 mg/kg/day THCA1—were used, corresponding to 0.01 to 0.1% of the patient’s body weight in THCA. For a child weighing 50 pounds, this entails between 2-23 milligrams of THCA in a day.

By contrast, studies with Epidiolex, a pure (99.5 percent) CBD sublingual spray, start at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day and usually increase to 25 mg/kg/day. The aforementioned doses of THCA are 10-100 times lower.2

THCA is typically administered along with other components of cannabis in a tincture via an under-the-tongue dropper or spray. Sulak’s article indicates that higher doses of THCA did not generally improve the response, with one patient getting worse after increasing the dose of THCA. Sulak also found that specific terpenes along with THCA in a given cannabis strain can contribute significantly to the antiepileptic effect. (Linalool, in this case, was necessary for the antiepileptic effect.)

Dr. Goldstein told Project CBD that daily consumption of 10-20 mg of THCA was effective in reducing pain in some of her patients with arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. For one patient with Alzheimer’s disease, THCA improved cognitive symptoms and allowed the patient to reduce the use of other drugs.

Dr. Sulak also spoke with Project CBD, saying that a higher dose of 2 mg/kg of THCA combined with THC is sometimes effective for seizures, pain, and arthritis. For neurological issues, about 1 mg of THCA and THCused 2-3 times a day has helped some of his adult patients. In one teenager, a very low dose of THCAprevented severe refractory migraines.

Anecdotal reports from other sources indicate that a 10:1 CBD:THCA ratio can be effective for some epileptic children when a high CBD/low THC cannabis oil preparation does not deliver satisfactory results. One seven-year-old patient, weighing 42 pounds, has been seizure free for the past two-and-a-half years since he’s been on a dosage regimen of 50 mg/day of CBD and 10 mg/day of THCA.

THCA in the lab

Thus far, preclinical research into THCA has been very confusing. Erin Rock and other scientists at the University of Guelph in Ontario have demonstrated that low doses of THCA—about 10-100 times lower than the requisite dose of THC—prevent nausea in rats. In addition, they found that THCA synergizes with CBDA, which is also a potent antiemetic compound. It is possible that the anti-nausea effect of smoking cannabis is partly attributable to the small amount of THCA that remains when cannabis is burned.

Curiously, THCA’s effect in the Guelph study was prevented by blocking the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. This is surprising, given that THCA isn’t known to bind to CB1 and doesn’t cause psychoactive effects like THC does when the latter binds to CB1. Yet Rock et. al. did not observe any effects from THCA that they could attribute to central CB1 activity. A possible explanation for this finding is that Rimonabant, the experimental drug they used to block the CB1 receptor, may have inhibited THCA’s effects through a different channel or receptor, such as GPR55 (which is activated by Rimonabant). When asked by Project CBD, Dr. Rock indicated that they are uncertain as to how THCA prevents nausea, and that it may very well be an off-target or peripheral effect.

A study by Rosenthaler and a group of Austrian scientists surmised that THCA has a greater binding affinity to the CB1 receptor than THC does. It may be that this study was flawed (their data also suggested—likely incorrectly3—that CBN, a breakdown product of THC, binds to CB1 more potently than does THC). But it also might be the case that THCA acts primarily on peripheral CB1 receptors outside the brain and central nervous system. The main difference between THCA and THC could be related to how these compounds are distributed throughout the body. Another explanation might derive from an inconsistency between two molecular isoforms of THCATHCA-A and THCA-B—which could give rise to different results (see sidebar).

How does THCA work?

So how does THCA confer its effects? Through which biochemical channels does THCA act? The only receptor to which THCA is known to potently bind is TRPM8—the receptor that makes mint feel cold. THCA is a strong antagonist of TRPM8. But there is no research to indicate that inhibiting TRPM8 prevents nausea or reduces seizures, so this does not explain the clinically observed effects of THCA.

At higher concentrations, THCA also may activate TRPV4, a heat-sensing receptor, and TRPA1, a receptor that mediates the edginess of spices such as mustard and cinnamon.

THCA may also convey therapeutic effects by inhibiting the metabolic enzyme MAGL that breaks down the endogenous cannabinoid 2-AG; this would result in higher levels of 2-AG, which activates both CB1 and CB2cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain and body.

In these preclinical tests, THCA was about 10 times more potent when used as a whole-plant extract rather than as an isolate.4 But this evidence is based on only a few studies performed in cell cultures, which does not necessarily translate to clinical experience.

Other data from preclinical work suggests that THCAmay be an anti-inflammatory compound that protects against cancer, but this work is an unconvincing explanation of clinical reports. One study on THCAand breast cancer required a high concentration of THCA, about 1000 times more than the concentration in the blood of Dr. Sulak’s patients. Another study suggested that THCA was a much weaker antioxidant than THC or CBD and that THCA is only slightly neuroprotective at similarly high doses. Two studies on inflammation revealed that THCA does not inhibit COX-2, an inflammatory enzyme blocked by ibuprofen and aspirin, and high doses of THCA were required for an anti-inflammatory effect.

The fact that doctors and patients are reporting significant health-positive effects from THCA at very low concentrations underscores that there is much more to understand about THCA. The properties of THCAindicated by preclinical research may be relevant to cannabinoid medicine in the future, but they do not explain the remarkable results with low doses of THCA that patients are experiencing today.

Source: https://www.projectcbd.org/science/cannabis-dosing/dosing-thca-less-more

What Is Cannabinol (CBN)?

You’ve heard about CBD and THC…but what about CBN?

What Is Cannibinol (CBN)?

The number of known cannabinoids is over a hundred. Each one has its own set of effects. People with limited knowledge of cannabinol (CBN) have assumed that it is simply a degraded, less potent cannabinoid derived from THC. It’s barely present in cannabis flowers and it is nowhere near as psychoactive as THC. You can find more cannabinol in older, degraded material making anything with its presence less desirable. As a result, this cannabinoid hasn’t received much attention. However, the industry is catching on to the fact that CBN has therapeutic effects that benefit people who are sensitive to THC. Now, more CBN is being found in cannabis products like topicals, edibles, capsules and more.

What Is Cannabinol (CBN)  & What Does It Do?

Any company with a cannabinol product is using the powerful sedative effects as a selling point. According to Steep Hill labs, Cannabinol is the most sedative known cannabinoid. They claim that 5mg of cannabinol is equal to 10mg of diazepam (valium) in terms of body relaxation. There’s a theory that the reason Indica strains make you sleepier is that they have higher CBN levels. So if you don’t like buds that makes you sleepy, look for strains or products with slim to no cannabinol content.

Cannabis plants produce enzymes which turn CBGA into the “raw cannabinoids” like THCA, CBDA and CBCA. THCA when heated turns into THC and THCV. Aged THCA turns into CBNA which converts into CBN. Research has shown cannabinol to have a number of therapeutic benefits.

Researchers studied the feeding patterns of rats after administering cannabinol. What they found was that rats treated with CBN were quicker to eat, ate more and for longer durations of time. The research concluded the less popular cannabinoid was a viable nonpsychoactive appetite stimulant.

2006 study found that CBN and several other cannabinoids have the ability to control the growth of cancer cells. CBN was specifically able to control a type of lung tumor called Lewis carcinoma.

Back in 1974, researchers found that THC, CBD and CBN all had anticonvulsant properties but potency-wise, CBN is less active than the other two.

In 2002, Swedish researchers at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Lund University Hospital found out cannabinol and THC activate the same pain pathways.

More Research On Effects

Studies on male volunteers illustrated that doses of CBN did not provide the psychoactive effects that THC did. The study also noted that subjects felt more “drugged, drunk, dizzy and drowsy” when it was combined to THC. They concluded that, “CBN increases the effect of THC on some aspects of physiological and psychological processes, but that these effects are small.”

On the other hand, some studies didn’t note as much of a synergetic effect when combined with THC. One study found the combination of THC and CBN did nothing to change “the quality, intensity, or duration of the effects of THC alone.”

Research has also shown that cannabinol is capable of slowing the onset of symptoms from ALS.

Additional research shows cannabinol has antibacterial capabilities as a topical. The study showed “potent activity against MRSA.”

Experimental and preclinical studies have shown topical cannabinol’s potential for treating skin conditions like psoriasis or burns.

Where Can You Find It?

Up until lately, the only place you could find CBN was in extremely small concentrations of certain weed strains. The concentrations in flowers are typically 1 percent or less. Until recently, extracts have either focused on isolating THC or CBD. Fortunately, less common cannabinoids like delta 8 THC are starting to be isolated and extracted. CBN is a little different. Since it exists in such small quantities in flower, we haven’t seen CBN in a concentrated form like with THC, delta 8 or THC-O-acetate. However, with CBN a little goes a much longer way than it would with equal quantities of THC or CBD.

Mary’s Medicinals Cannabinol Capsules is one form that is easy to ingest for any type of patient suffering from sleep-deprivation. Capsules make it easy to know exactly how much you’re consuming in a single sitting. Mary’s Medicinals also has high-cannabinol transdermal patches.

For patients that don’t like patches or swallowing pills, SpOILed Patients Collective makes a high-dose CBN drink called Hornet Hibernate. SpOILed says their CBN drink contains a wide spectrum of cannabinoids including CBC, CBD and small amounts of THC for the entourage effects. From their experience with the Hornet Hibernate, CBN amplifies the effects of THC. Smoking a few bowls on top of a teaspoon will “send you to the moon,” SpOILed tells us. Each bottle contains about 10 to 12 percent CBN and you’ll only need a teaspoon without the smoke to get a solid nights sleep, illustrating how far a little goes. They’re working on versions with delta-8 THC or delta-9 THC for patients that need them.

The Hornet Hibernate is approved by the veterans of the Weed For Warriors Project. SpOILed says the combination of CBD and CBN has been helping veterans to get off of fentanyl patches and curb opiate addictions. They claim the healing properties of the CBD combined with the sedative effects of CBN have helped many of their patients through hard times.

Final Hit: What Is Cannabinol?

The thing that sets cannabinol apart from the other cannabinoids in weed is the strong sedative ability. It can also stimulate appetite and curb anxiety without the side effects of a medication like a valium. The research on cannabinol, especially on humans is currently lacking. As more research is conducted on CBN, we may find even more uses for it. Most of the reported effects don’t have much to back them up yet.

Source: https://hightimes.com/guides/what-is-cannibinol-cbn/

 

Binge Drinking Drops In States With Recreational Marijuana

(Photo by Keith Bedford/The Boston Globe via Getty Images)

Binge drinking across the United States is at an all time high. Yet, a new report from the Wall Street investment firm Cowen & Company shows that this dangerous alcoholic behavior is on the decline in states that have legalized the leaf in a manner similar to alcohol.

It was just a month ago that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published new data suggesting that more Americans are now engaging in regular binge drinking. What was once considered a foolish exploit of College students has now apparently infiltrated citizens from every demographic and all walks of life.

The CDC found that Americans sucked down 17 billion alcoholic beverages in 2015. By definition, the term “binge drinking,” is five or more drinks for men, and four or more for women in a span of around two hours. Thirty-seven million adults (about 1 in 6 people) engage in this activity at least once a week, the report finds.

But the investment analysts at Cowen published a document earlier this week that provides a little hope for an America headed for cirrhosis of the liver. It seems that binge drinking is on the decline in states that have legal marijuana laws on the books. More specifically, it is those states like Colorado and Washington, some of the first U.S. jurisdictions to legalize for recreational use, where binge drinking is now less prominent.

“In legal adult use cannabis states,” the analysts wrote, “the number binge drinking sessions per month (for states legal through 2016) was -9% below the national average.”

What’s more is legal marijuana states, where adults 21 and older can walk into a dispensary and purchase a variety of cannabis products, experienced 13 percent less binge drinking than areas of prohibition. The writing is on the wall – people with legal access to recreational marijuana are opting to spend either all or a portion of their booze budget on a substance that has been deemed “a safer alternative.”

 Marijuana may never run the booze business out on a rail, Cowen says, but there are some interesting dynamics that could throw a wrench in the gears of this inebriation leader.

“We have consistently argued that cannabis and alcohol are substitute social lubricants,” the report reads. “To be sure, we do not dispute that alcohol will continue to be quite popular in the U.S. (generating over $210 bn in annual retail sales today). We are, however, focused on the marginal alcohol unit, which given the cannabis category’s much smaller size, creates a sizable opportunity for the cannabis industry.”

As more states move into legalization, the report says, making mention of Michigan and Illinois as being the two most likely, the firm believes binge drinking rates will drop even more. This is mostly due to the fact that cannabis keeps gaining popularity and beer sales continue to decline.

As it stands, those states without recreational marijuana laws are experiencing an increase in binge drinking. “Non-cannabis states averaged 7.4 drinks per binge, ~12% higher than the 6.6 drinks per binge seen in adult use cannabis states,” the report reads.

In addition, the report also finds that Cowen’s previous prediction over the size of the national cannabis market was low. In the past, the firm estimated that if the federal government ended prohibition today, the cannabis industry would be worth $50 billion by 2026. Cowen now says the industry has already hit that mark. It now expects the U.S. cannabis market to grow to around $75 billion within the next 12 years.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gradsoflife/2018/03/29/rebuilding-puerto-rico-one-youth-at-a-time/#394f22e2dba5

 

Report: Arizona Has 159,000 Patients and Sold 8,194 Lbs. of Marijuana

Tucson Marijuana Dispensaries

The Arizona Department of Health Services’ (ADHS) latest medical marijuana program report, which covers through the month of February 2018, reveals that there are 158,488 active medical marijuana patients in Arizona.

Maricopa County has the largest number of patients with 101,023. Pima County was second with 21,999 patients, then Pinal County with 8,860 and Yavapai County with 8,088.

Arizona medical marijuana patients’ ages range from adolescents to seniors:

  • Under 18 – 218 patients
  • 18 to 30 – 39,177
  • 31 to 40 – 32,528
  • 41 to 50 – 24,786
  • 51 to 60 – 26,469
  • 61 to 70 – 25,794
  • 71 to 80 – 7,862
  • 81 and older – 1,654

According to the data, there are 96,744 males (61.04%) and 61,744 females (38.96%) with medical marijuana cards, and the most common qualifying condition in Arizona is chronic pain.

Arizona patients’ medical marijuana qualifying conditions:

  • Chronic Pain – 135,863 patients (85.72%)
  • Cancer – 3,750
  • PTSD – 2,036
  • Seizures – 1,197
  • Muscle Spams – 1,182
  • Glaucoma – 1,041
  • Hepatitis C – 868
  • Nausea – 800
  • HIV/AIDS – 636
  • Crohn’s disease – 524
  • Cachexia – 117
  • Alzheimer’s disease – 63
  • Sclerosis – 47
  • Two or more conditions – 10,364

In February, dispensaries sold a total of 8,194 pounds (131,112 ounces) of marijuana. Here’s an itemized list of marijuana sold:

  • Marijuana flower – 7,497 pounds (119,965 ounces)
  • Marijuana edibles – 363 pounds
  • Other marijuana – 333 pounds

Source: https://azmarijuana.com/arizona-medical-marijuana-news/arizonas-medical-marijuana-program-nearing-160000-patients/

 

 

Marijuana legalization could help offset opioid epidemic, studies find

(CNN)Experts have proposed using medical marijuana to help Americans struggling with opioid addiction. Now, two studies suggest that there is merit to that strategy.

The studies, published Monday in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine, compared opioid prescription patterns in states that have enacted medical cannabis laws with those that have not. One of the studies looked at opioid prescriptions covered by Medicare Part D between 2010 and 2015, while the other looked at opioid prescriptions covered by Medicaid between 2011 and 2016.
The researchers found that states that allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes had 2.21 million fewer daily doses of opioids prescribed per year under Medicare Part D, compared with those states without medical cannabis laws. Opioid prescriptions under Medicaid also dropped by 5.88% in states with medical cannabis laws compared with states without such laws, according to the studies.
“This study adds one more brick in the wall in the argument that cannabis clearly has medical applications,” said David Bradford, professor of public administration and policy at the University of Georgia and a lead author of the Medicare study.
“And for pain patients in particular, our work adds to the argument that cannabis can be effective.”
Medicare Part D, the optional prescription drug benefit plan for those enrolled in Medicare, covers more than 42 million Americans, including those 65 or older. Medicaid provides health coverage to more than 73 million low-income individuals in the US, according to the program’s website.
“Medicare and Medicaid publishes this data, and we’re free to use it, and anyone who’s interested can download the data,” Bradford said. “But that means that we don’t know what’s going on with the privately insured and the uninsured population, and for that, I’m afraid the data sets are proprietary and expensive.”

‘This crisis is very real’

The new research comes as the United States remains entangled in the worst opioid epidemic the world has ever seen. Opioid overdose has risen dramatically over the past 15 years and has been implicated in over 500,000 deaths since 2000 — more than the number of Americans killed in World War II.
“As somebody who treats patients with opioid use disorders, this crisis is

Arizona Legislature Ready to Approve Using Medical Marijuana to Treat Opioid Abuse

Arizona Legislature Ready to Approve Using Medical Marijuana to Treat Opioid Abuse

Medical marijuana will soon be recommended as a treatment for opioid addiction if a Republican-sponsored bill quietly progressing through the Arizona Legislature is successful.

House Bill 2064, introduced by Representative Vince Leach, was originally intended only to ban dispensaries from selling edibles in packaging that could be appealing to children. But a little-noticed amendment to the bill would also add opioid use disorder to the list of medical conditions that can legally be treated with medical marijuana.

“HB 2064 went from being something that I found, in its original language and apparent intent, annoying,” said Mikel Weisser, the executive director at the Arizona chapter of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, (NORML). “Now, with the opioid use disorder added, it’s something I want to see happen.”

Using marijuana to treat opioid addiction is highly controversial. But, surprisingly enough, what would amount to a major change in state policy has received virtually no opposition so far.

When the bill came before the Senate Commerce and Public Safety committee on Monday, Ed Gogek — author of Marijuana Debunked: A handbook for parents, pundits and politicians who want to know the case against legalization — was the only one to testify against it.

As soon as he was done talking, the committee passed the bill unanimously, without any further discussion. It has already cleared the House of Representatives.

Equally surprising is the bill’s sponsor. Leach, a Republican from Saddlebrooke, isn’t exactly known for being a friend of the medical marijuana industry. Ever year, he introduces a long list of legislation that targets dispensaries and cardholders.

He didn’t immediately respond to a request to a comment on Thursday afternoon about his change of heart. But Representative Randy Friese, a Democrat from Tucson, said that the Democratic caucus had negotiated with Leach to get the amendment added to the bill.

 

Making any changes to voter-approved ballot initiative like Arizona’s medical marijuana law requires a three-fourths majority. So this was a rare instance where Democrats had some leverage, since the bill wouldn’t have been able to pass through the House of Representatives without their support.

“When the votes weren’t there, Mr. Leach went back to the drawing board and apparently concluded that debilitating medical conditions should now include opioid use disorder,” said Kevin DeMenna, a lobbyist for the Arizona Dispensary Association.

Though his client had originally opposed the bill, it’s now “a much improved piece of legislation,” DeMenna said.

Currently, state law allows doctors to prescribe medical marijuana to patients who suffer from conditions including cancer, glaucoma, HIV, hepatitis C, Crohn’s disease, or anything that causes muscle spasms, severe nausea, or chronic pain. Post-traumatic stress disorder was added to the list in 2014, after some debate.

Eventually, the Arizona Dispensary Association would eventually like to get rid of that list of qualifying conditions altogether, leaving it up to doctors to determine who should get a medical marijuana card. In the meantime, DeMenna said, adding opioid addiction to the list is a step in the right direction.

Whether Governor Doug Ducey — who, like Leach, is no fan of medical marijuana — will sign the bill is another question. The idea of using cannabis to treat opioid addiction had been floated during this year’s special session, but was rejected outright, Mikel Weisser of NORML pointed out.

“I’m not sure that will get the reception that we want on the Ninth Floor,” he said. “But I think it’s a real step forward to be a state that’s considering addressing opioid dependency by looking at medical marijuana.”

Source: http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/news/medical-cannabis-extracts-legal-in-arizona-or-not-10232352

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069

 

Study: Marijuana Decriminalization Leads To Decreased Arrests, No Increase In Youth Use

Marijuana Decriminalization

St. Louis, MO: State laws reducing minor marijuana possession offenses from criminal to civil violations (aka decriminalization) are associated with dramatic reductions in drug-related arrests, and are not linked to any uptick in youth cannabis use, according to data published by researchers affiliated with Washington University and the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Investigators examined the impact of cannabis decriminalization on arrests and youth cannabis use in five states that passed decriminalization measures between the years 2008 and 2014: Massachusetts (decriminalized in 2008), Connecticut (2011), Rhode Island (2013), Vermont (2013), and Maryland (2014). Data on cannabis use were obtained from state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys; arrest data were obtained from federal crime statistics.

Authors reported: “Decriminalization of cannabis in five states between the years 2009 and 2014 was associated with large and immediate decreases in drug-related arrests for both youth and adults. … The sharp drop in arrest rates suggests that implementation of these policies likely changed police behavior as intended.”

They further reported: “Decriminalization was not associated with increased cannabis use either in aggregate or in any of the five states analyzed separately, nor did we see any delayed effects in a lag analysis, which allowed for the possibility of a two-year (one period) delay in policy impact. In fact, the lag analysis suggested a potential protective effect of decriminalization.” In two of the five states assessed, Rhode Island and Vermont, researchers determined that the prevalence of youth cannabis use declined following the enactment of decriminalization.

Investigators concluded: “[I]mplementation of cannabis decriminalization likely leads to a large decrease in the number of arrests among youth (as well as adults) and we see no evidence of increases in youth cannabis use. On the contrary, cannabis use rates declined after decriminalization. … These findings are consistent with the interpretation that decriminalization policies likely succeed with respect to their intended effects and that their short-term unintended consequences are minimal.”

Thirteen states currently impose either partial or full decriminalization. Nine additional states and Washington, DC have subsequently amended their decriminalization laws in a manner that fully legalizes the use of marijuana by adults.

Source: http://norml.org/news/2018/03/22/study-marijuana-decriminalization-leads-to-decreased-arrests-no-increase-in-youth-use

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069

 

Marijuana for Anxiety

Anxiety and Marijuana: CBD, THC, CBD-A All You Need To Know About Weeds Effects on Mental Health

marijuana and anxiety

 Medical Marijuana Can Treat Anxiety

With a global increase of medical marijuana use to treat health conditions, advocates and studies are showing that medical marijuana can be used to treat anxiety disorders. Advocates believe that the chemical makeup of cannabis can be beneficial in treating anxiety, while others argue that it can actually cause anxiety.

Medical marijuana has been used for centuries to treat depression and other medical conditions. More than 400 years ago, cannabis was used to treat depression in India and has since been studied and analyzed to determine the medical benefits and disadvantages for patients. Today, many states across America have legalized the use of medical marijuana, but usage still remains illegal under U.S. federal law.

 

 

When taking a close look at medical studies and results of medical marijuana used to treat anxiety, it’s evident that the chemical makeup, specifically the presence of the chemical compound Cannabidiol, commonly known as CBD, is the main ingredient to treat anxiety. Another compound, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, can prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer patients, but may have a reverse affect on treatment for anxiety.

 

The Chemical Makeup of Medical Marijuana

CannabinoidGraphic

Medical marijuana, or medical cannabis, is the use of cannabis and its chemical compounds to treat illnesses, diseases and improve symptoms.

The cannabis plant has historically been used worldwide to treat illness and health conditions. The American Medical Association and other medical organizations strongly oppose its use for medical reasons, but the American Academy of Pediatrics believes that the use of medical cannabinoids, the natural compounds that make up the genetics of medical marijuana, can be a therapy for a number of medical conditions, but do not recommend use until more research is complete.

There are 85 natural compounds in cannabis, known as cannabinoids, which all relieve symptoms of illness by attaching to the receptors in the brain that look for similar compounds that occur naturally in the human body. Strains of medical marijuana are specifically bred to contain particular levels of each compound recommended for different conditions.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the cannabis compound that has found to have significant benefits for treating people with anxiety. CBD-rich cannabis can be treated for patients seeking anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, anti-anxiety and anti-spasm affects. CBD does not make people feel “stoned” or “high,” and can actually counteract the anxiety-driven tendencies of THC. CBD is one 85 natural compounds found in cannabis. It is a major element, making up 40 percent of the plant’s extract and has a wider medical benefit than THC.

The other popular compound to treat medical conditions is tetrahydrocannibinol, or THC, and can be used to relax muscles, reduce inflammation, reduce seizures stimulate appetite, lower blood pressure and is an anti-depressant.

The Right Balance of CBD and THC to Treat Anxiety

marijuana

 

Most who use medical marijuana say it helps relieve anxiety, but others say they feel more anxious after using. There are a wide variety of marijuana strains, which have different levels of chemicals that have various levels of the common chemicals – THC and CBD.

Research shows that THC and CBD can have opposite effects when used to treat anxiety disorders. THC is linked to feelings of paranoia and anxiety, because it activates the amygdala area of the brain, which is responsible for fear. On the alternate, CBD counteracts such feelings from THC. Studies show that taking CBD on its own can lower – even eliminate – anxiety.

Most medical marijuana plants are bread to be high in levels of THC, because it is commonly used to treat more popular health conditions, such as cancer, eating disorders and seizure disorders. THC also sells, because it provides a floating, euphoric feeling that most people commonly experience when using marijuana. Strains with high levels of CBD have only recently became popular in medical usage because of the growing awareness of its benefits.

For those looking to treat anxiety disorders with cannabis, treatment relies heavily on the appropriate dose. Research proves that THC begins to raise anxiety levels after a certain threshold is passed. Those using medical marijuana to treat anxiety will need to find strains with high compounds of CBD when purchasing medical cannabis.

Benefits of Medical Marijuana Studies Prove CBD Treats Anxiety

 marijuan studies anxiety dissorders

 

Certain medical marijuana strains with higher levels of CBD have proven to help treat anxiety disorders. The CBD produces therapeutic affects for patients and can also help patients with Crohn’s Disease or glaucoma. Animal studies suggest that CBD present in cannabis lessens anxiety and reduces the severity and frequency of seizures.

According to a study published by the Institute of Psychiatry, CBD proved to offer great psychiatric potential, including uses as an antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like compound. During the study, animals who had been given CBD experienced lower levels of anxiety and depression in a series of tests, such as swimming and puzzle mazes, than animals who had not been given CBD.

Another study aimed to investigate the use of CBD for treating a social anxiety disorder. The study, published by the Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Division of Psychiatry, found that CBD was associated with significantly decreased subjective anxiety.

The study states that in the first session, subjects were given an oral does of CBD or placebo. Results suggested that CBD reduced anxiety in social anxiety disorder patients because it is related to CBD’s effects on activity in specific mood-altering brain areas. (PubMed)

History of Medical Marijuana For The Treatment of Anxiety

marijuana stamp history

In today’s world, the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes is a hot topic. It’s very controversial, with many arguing from all sides of the debate. Yet, the use of marijuana to treat health conditions and illnesses dates back centuries.

  • More than 400 years ago, cannabis was used to treat depression and stress relief in India. Specifically, CBD-rich medical marijuana has a long history of being used to treat health problems, including anxiety. The drug’s popularity as a medicine spread through Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Ancient physicians prescribed marijuana for everything – pain relief and even childbirth.
  • In the 18th Century, American journals began recommending hemp seeds and roots to treat inflamed skin and venereal disease. Queen Victoria used cannabis to help discomfort for menstrual cramps. An Irish doctor, William O’Shaughnessy, first popularized marijuana’s medical use in England and America.  He found it to ease the pain and discomfort for nausea in cases of rabies, cholera and tetanus.
  • Yet, the increase in demands to feel the “high” produced by cannabis with stronger levels of THC eventually led to marijuana being used recreationally, as opposed to medically. For many years, marijuana production to increase the levels of THC led to the decrease in CBD levels to trace amounts.
  • The 19th Century increase in usage of morphine ultimately led to the U.S. government introducing the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906, created by the Food and Drug Administration. Although it didn’t apply to the use of marijuana, it caused a major shift in the U.S. drug policy.
  • In 1914, the Harrison Act was created in the United States, which made drug use a crime. By 1937, 23 states had outlawed marijuana.
  • In 1937, the Federal Government passed the Marihuana Tax Act, which made nonmedical use of marijuana illegal.
  • By the 1970s, strong anti-drug policies were in full swing. Yet, in 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana use. A dozen states soon followed.
  • In 1998, the British government licensed GW Pharmaceuticals to grow cannabis and develop a consistent plant to extract use for clinical trails. GW’s co-founder Geoffrey Guy, MD, was convinced that by using CBD-rich plants, GW could make medicine of cannabis that had little or no psychoactive effect.
  • In 2009, medical professionals began to discover and test new strains with more CBD than THC. CBD-rich strains were generally not available to cannabis consumers across the United States at this time. Studies analyzed CBD-rich cannabis to determine the medical benefits and disadvantages for patients.

Today, many states across America have legalized the use of medical marijuana, but usage still remains illegal under U.S. federal law.

Worldwide, Uruguay became the first country to remove its prohibition entirely on marijuana in 2013.  Colombia and Costa Rica have bills in Congress that would allow for medical marijuana usage. Jamaica recently passed a law to make it possible to supply marijuana for medical and religious purposes.

Arguments Against Medical Marijuana Use to Treat Anxiety

arguments against marijuana

While most studies prove that medical marijuana can help anxiety, some doctors and anti-drug advocates believe it can make anxiety worse. A common compound found in cannabis, THC, is linked to feelings of paranoia and anxiety, because it activates the amygdala area of the brain, which is responsible for fear.

The University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute stated the following in an online fact sheet titled “Mental Health and Marijuana,” based on information from the National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre in 2012:

“Marijuana may seem to help ease depression before the effects of the drug wear off; however after that, smoking marijuana may make depression worse. Those who use marijuana have been shown to have higher levels of depression and depressive symptoms than those who do not use marijuana.

“Marijuana can lead to symptoms of anxiety, such as panic, in the short-term, but there is a lack of evidence pointing to marijuana as an important risk factor for chronic anxiety disorders… Again, if someone has a genetic vulnerability or has an existing mental health issues, marijuana should be avoided.”

For those looking to treat anxiety disorders with cannabis, treatment relies heavily on the appropriate dose. Research proves that THC begins to raise anxiety levels after a certain threshold is passed. Those using medical marijuana to treat anxiety will need to find strains with high compounds of CBD when purchasing medical cannabis.

Anxiety Disorders Treated with Medical Marijuana Use

anxiety and marijuana

Anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For a person with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety doesn’t go away and gets worse over time, effecting a person’s daily activities, job performance and relationships. Most common forms of anxiety disorders are generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders and social anxiety disorders.

Sometimes, a physical evaluation is advisable to determine if a person’s anxiety is associated with a physical illness. Occasionally, anxiety can be paired with other conditions, such as alcoholism, depression or other coexisting conditions. If other existing conditions exist, a patient should seek treatment for those before treating the anxiety disorder.

Many with a variety of anxiety disorders claim to find relieve from their symptoms of anxiety with use of medical marijuana. Numerous studies have suggested that medical marijuana use can decrease feelings of anxiety. Yet, we’ve only just began studying the benefits of medical marijuana use for those with anxiety, so physicians are not likely to prescribe use to their patients.

Medical Marijuana with CBD can Treat Anxiety and PTSD

When taking a close look at medical studies and results of medical marijuana used to treat anxiety, it’s evident that the chemical makeup, specifically high doses of CBD, is the main ingredient to treat anxiety.

A study aimed to determine CBD’s impact on social anxiety in public speaking showed that those pretreated with a dose of CBD experienced significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort during their speech performance. The placebo group experienced higher levels of anxiety and discomfort. The study stated that CBD holds many advantages over standard social anxiety treatments, such as anti-depressants, due to the quickness of efficiency and absence of severe withdrawal or side affects.

Medical marijuana can help people with PTSD by working with the body’s natural compounds to create a relaxing, reverse effect on the brain. Studies prove that medical marijuana with high levels of CBD provide a therapeutic effect on those with anxiety disorders. For more info you can check Maps latest study here.

Source: http://www.anxietysocialnet.com/ANXIETY-AND-MEDICAL-MARIJUANA

Contact Natural Healing Care Center (click) for more information on Cannabis as medicine, or for any other questions call 520-323-0069